Control of species

The following is a list of exotic pests for which there are laws, regulations as well as control and prevention schemes.

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Introduction

Established FIAS symbol

Many exotic forest insects and diseases have been introduced into Canada since the early 19th century1. While preventing such introductions is the best means of protecting Canadian forests from the harmful effects of exotic pests2, it is essential to have measures for halting the spread of exotic pests that do become established. According to Myers et al.3, aside from eradication, efforts can be directed at reducing the density of an exotic pest in infested areas, slowing its spread or implementing classical biological controls.

1 - Eradication

When an invasive exotic species is introduced and becomes established in a new area, eradication is possible under certain conditions4,5:

  1. the eradication program must be supported by sufficient funding;
  2. the organization responsible for eradication must have the clear delegation of authority and the power to carry out the necessary interventions;
  3. the pest targeted by the eradication efforts must be susceptible to the methods used;
  4. it is essential to prevent reinfestation;
  5. it is necessary to be able to detect small populations of pests soon after they are introduced;
  6. the environment affected by the eradication measures should be restored, where necessary.

As an example, the Asian longhorned beetle has certain biological characteristics that make eradication feasible: Indeed, a small infestation can be detected soon after the beetle is introduced; the means used, specifically the systematic felling of host trees in the regulated area and chipping of this material, are effective; and reinfestation can be prevented through ongoing surveys and intervention and by controlling the movement of infested material. Furthermore, national plant protection agencies, such as the CFIA in Canada, generally have clear-cut powers to intervene and adequate budgets. As a consequence, no trees infested with Asian longhorned beetles have been found since December 2008 in Toronto, Canada6. The Asian longhorned beetle has been eradicated in Illinois in the United States as well as in Yokohama, Japan7.

Finally, gypsy moth is eradicated from British Columbia after every incursion of this insect in this province8.

Early detection of an invasive species makes its eradication easier and favours the eradication success9. According to Régnière10, the chances of eradication are greater when an infestation is limited to a small area.

With regard to diseases, it may also be possible to eradicate some of them. As an example, isolated disease pocket of the European race of the scleroderris canker in areas representing localized pockets of infestation, such as in Madawaska County, New Brunswick could be eradicated. The disease responds well to intervention11 and the risk of reinfection is low because of the limited dispersal ability of the causal fungus and the existence of regulated areas. Unfortunately, no eradication efforts have been carried out to date.

2 - Reduction in density

When conditions favouring the eradication of an exotic pest are not present, it may be helpful to reduce pest density below an acceptable level so that the cost of control measures can be reduced12.

White pine blister rust was introduced into Canada in the early 20th century. This disease is present across Canada but it is not regulated. It has a significant economic impact. The impact of the disease can be reduced by planting eastern white pine in low blister rust hazard areas13 and by treating plantations at the time of their establishment and when the trees are still young, to reduce the incidence of blister rust14.

3 - Slowing the spread

"Slow the spread" (STS) strategies can be adopted to keep an exotic pest from spreading outside an area where it is already established. They entail close monitoring of pest populations in the transition zone between the infested area and the pest-free area15 and applying control methods in areas within the transition zone where an increase in pest numbers is detected16.

In the United States, the STS Foundation has implemented a slow the spread program for the gypsy moth, in collaboration with the USDA Forest Service. The funding for this program is provided by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) through its Plant Protection and Quarantine program17. A slow the spread strategy has also been recommended for satellite infestations of the emerald ash borer in the United States18. In Carignan, Quebec, Canada, a regulated area for the emerald ash borer has been established: trees that are infested or believed to be infested by this pest are felled and the resulting material is destroyed with the aim of checking the insect's spread. These approaches enable researchers to develop suitable means of detection and control before infestations reach an outbreak level.

4 - Biological control

When an exotic pest establishes an endemic population, biological control can often be used to reduce the damage it causes. Biological control methods include the release of selective pathogens, parasites and predators or sterile insects and the use of agents that interfere with reproduction19,20.

Since its creation, the Canadian Forest Service has successfully introduced biological control agents against six exotic pests: the larch sawfly21, the larch casebearer22, the birch leaf miner23,24,25, the mountain ash sawfly26, the winter moth27 and the European pine sawfly28.

And researchers from the Canadian Forest Service continues to conduct biological control research on annosus root rot29,30,31 beech bark disease32, gypsy moth33, European pine sawfly34, common pine shoot beetle35, emerald ash borer, brown spruce longhorn beetle and Sirex woodwasp36.

Objectives

This section of the portal on forest invasive alien species (FIAF) presents information on regulatory control, prevention of infestations or infection, mechanical and silvicultural control, chemical, biological control and genetic methods, as well as integrated management of exotic pests.

Information is provided on the control of invasive alien species that are currently not present in Canada and that are considered undesirable. It is intended to enable regulatory authorities and their partners to implement control measures as soon as possible after a new introduction is detected.

The focus is also on exotic pests that are already established in Canada. The information is intended for owners and managers of public and private woodlands who want to protect their forests against these pests, as well as for practitioners of tree and forest protection. The information is summarized in a clear and concise manner.

References

  1. Hendrickson, O. 2002. Espèces exotiques envahissantes dans les forêts canadiennes. In Claudi, R., Nantel, P. et Muckle-Jeffs, E., Envahisseurs exotiques des eaux, milieux humides et forêts du Canada, pp. 59-72.
  2. [Anonyme]. 2004. Stratégie nationale sur les espèces exotiques envahissantes. Gouvernement du Canada, 46 pp. http://www.ec.gc.ca/eee-ias/98DB3ACF-94FE-4573-AE0F-95133A03C5E9/Final_IAS_Strategic_Plan_smaller_f.pdf
  3. Myers J.H.; Simberloff D.; Kuris A.M. and Carey J.R. 2000. Eradication revisited: dealing with exotic species. Trends Ecol. Evol. 15: 316–20.
  4. Myers J.H.; Simberloff D.; Kuris A.M. and Carey J.R. 2000. Eradication revisited: dealing with exotic species. Trends Ecol. Evol. 15: 316–20.
  5. Haack, R.A.; Hérard, F.; Sun, J. and Turgeon, J.J. 2009. Managing Invasive Populations of Asian Longhorned Beetle and Citrus Longhorned Beetle: A Worldwide Perspective. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 2010. 55: 521–46.
  6. Jacques Audette, ACIA, communication personnelle
  7. Haack, R.A.; Hérard, F.; Sun, J. and Turgeon, J.J. 2009. Managing Invasive Populations of Asian Longhorned Beetle and Citrus Longhorned Beetle: A Worldwide Perspective. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 2010. 55: 521–46.
  8. Humble, L.M. and Allen, E.A. 2004. Alien Invaders: Non-indigenous Species in Urban Forests. 6th Canadian Urban Forest Conference - October 19 -23, 2004 ~ Kelowna, B.C., pp. 6.1-6.17.
  9. Humble, L.M. and Allen, E.A. 2004. Alien Invaders: Non-indigenous Species in Urban Forests. 6th Canadian Urban Forest Conference - October 19 -23, 2004 ~ Kelowna, B.C., pp. 6.1-6.17.
  10. Régnière, J. 2009. Invasive Species, climate change and Forest Health. Keynote presentation, World Forestry Congress, Buenos Argentina, Thursday, October 22nd, 2009
  11. Laflamme, G. 1999. Successful control of Gremmeniella abietina, European race, in a red pine plantation; Traitement réussi d'une plantation de pins rouges affectée par le Gremmeniella abietina, race européenne. Phytoprotection 80(2): 55-64.
  12. Myers J.H.; Simberloff D.; Kuris A.M. and Carey J.R. 2000. Eradication revisited: dealing with exotic species. Trends Ecol. Evol. 15: 316–20.
  13. -Lavallée, A. 1986. Zones of vulnerability of white pine to blister rust in Quebec Québec.; Zones de vulnérabilité du pin blanc à la rouille vésiculeuse au Québec. Forestry Chronicle 62: 24-28.
  14. Laflamme, G., Blais, R., and Desgagné, D. 1998. Control of Cronartium ribicola in Pinus strobus plantations. Proceedings of the first IUFRO Rusts of Forest Trees Working Party, 2-7 August 1998, Saariselkä, Finland. Finnish Forest Research Institute Research Paper 712: Pages 299-303.
  15. Tobin, P. C. and Blackburn, L. M., eds. 2007. Slow the Spread: a national program to manage the gypsy moth. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-6. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Newtown Square, PA, 109 pp.
  16. Tobin, P. C. and Blackburn, L. M., eds. 2007. Slow the Spread: a national program to manage the gypsy moth. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-6. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Newtown Square, PA, 109 pp.
  17. Tobin, P. C. and Blackburn, L. M., eds. 2007. Slow the Spread: a national program to manage the gypsy moth. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-6. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Newtown Square, PA, 109 pp.
  18. [Anonymous]. 2009. SLAM A Strategy to SL.ow A.sh M.ortality In Emerald Ash Borer Outlier Sites. Ministère des Ressources Naturelles de l'Iowa, 11 pp. http://www.iowadnr.gov/forestry/eab/files/slam.pdf consulté le 19 janvier 2010.
  19. Myers J.H.; Simberloff D.; Kuris A.M. and Carey J.R. 2000. Eradication revisited: dealing with exotic species. Trends Ecol. Evol. 15: 316–20.
  20. Nealis, V.G.; Carter, N.; Kenis, M.; Quednau, F.W. and Frankenhuyzen, K. van. 2001. Lymantria dispar (L.) Gypsy Moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). In: Mason P.G. and Huber, J.T. eds. Biological Control Programmes in Canada, 1981-2000. Wallingford: CABI Publishing, pp.159-168.
  21. Muldrew, J.A. and Ives, W.G.H. 1984. Dispersal of Olesicampe benefactor and Mesochorus dimidatus in Western Canada. Northern forest research centre, Environment Canada, Canadian Forestry Service, Information Report NOR-X-258, 35 pp.
  22. Daviault, L. 1947. Entomologie forestière. In Rapport du Ministre des Terres et Forêts de la Province de Québec pour l'année finissant le 31 mars 1946, Appendice No 4, Rapport annuel du chef du service de la protection. Gouvernement du Québec, Ministère des Terres et Forêts, p. 115.
  23. Guèvremont, H.C. et Quednau, F.W. 1978. Implantation de deux parasitoïdes pour la lutte biologique contre Fenusa pusilla (Lep) au Québec, en 1974 et 1975. Canada Centre de Recherche Forestière des Laurentides. Sainte-Foy, Québec, Rapp. Inf. LAU-X-22 20p.
  24. Quednau, F.W. 1984. Fenusa pusilla (Lepeletier), Birch Leafminer (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae). In: Biological Control Programmes in Canada, 1981-2000; Wallingford: CABI Publishing, 2001, Edited by P.G. Mason and J.T. Huber, pp .291-294.
  25. Langor, D. W., Digweed, S.C. and Spence, J.R. 2001. : Fenusa pusilla (Lepeletier), birch leafminer, and Profenusa thomsoni (Konow), ambermarked birch leafminer (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae). In Biological Control Programmes in Canada, 1981-2000; Wallingford: CABI Publishing, 2001, P.G. Mason and J.T. Huber editors, p 123-127.
  26. Quednau, F. W. 1990. Introduction, permanent establishment, and dispersal in Eastern Canada of Olesicampe geniculatae Quednau and Lim (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), an important biological control agent of the mountain ash sawfly, Pristiphora geniculata (Hartig) (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae). Can. Entomol. 122: 921-934.
  27. Embree, D.G. 1971.Operophtera brumata (L.) winter moth (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). In Biological Programs against Insects and weeds in Canada 1959-1968. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Farhnam Royal, Slough England, pp. 167-175.
  28. Cunningham, J.C.; Kraup, W.J.; McPhee, J.R.; Sippell, W.L. and Barnes, C.A. 1975. Aerial application of a nuclear polyhedrosis virus to control European pine sawfly. Can. For. Serv., Ottawa, Ont. Bi-mon. Res. Notes 31: 39-40.
  29. Laflamme, G. et Dumas, M. 2007. Lutte biologique préventive contre un pourridié des pins rouges. In Actes du colloque : Protéger la forêt naturellement. Colloque sur la lutte biologique et intégré. 19-21 mars 2007. St-Georges, Québec, pp. 44-46.
  30. Dumas, M.T. and Laflamme, G. 2006. Efficacy trial of P. gigantea to control annosus root rot. Forest Pest Management Forum 5-7 décembre 2006. Ottawa, pp. 92-93.
  31. Roy, G.; Laflamme, G.; Bussières, G.; Dessureault, M. 2003. Field tests on biological control of Heterobasidion annosum by Phaeotheca dimorphospora in comparison with Phlebiopsis gigantea. Forest Pathol. 33: 127-140.
  32. Laflamme, G.; Boudreault, S.; Lavallée, R.; Blais, M. and Blanchette, J.-Y. 2009. Biological control trials of beech bark disease under laboratory conditions. SDU Faculty of Forestry Journal (Isparta, Turkey). Special Issue. Seri A: 194-199.
  33. van Frankenhuyzen, K.; Régnière, J.; Bernier-Cardou, M. 2008. Response of Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) to Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki at different ingested doses and temperatures. J. Invert. Pathol. 99: 263-274.
  34. Lauzon, H.A.M.; Garcia-Maruniak, A.; Zanotto, P.M. de A.; Clemente, J.C.; Herniou, E.A.; Lucarotti, C.J.; Arif, B.M.; Maruniak, J.E. 2006. Genomic comparison of Neodiprion sertifer and Neodiprion lecontei nucleopolyhedroviruses and identification of potential hymenopteran baculovirus-specific open reading frames. J. Gen. Virol. 87: 1477-1489.
  35. Lavallée, R. Trudel, R. et Guertin, C. 2007. Le charançon du pin blanc et le grand hylésine des pins - leur contrôle avec des alliés naturels redoutables : les champignons! . In Actes du colloque : Protéger la forêt naturellement. Colloque sur la lutte biologique et intégré. 19-21 mars 2007. St-Georges, Québec, pp. 39-43.
  36. Lavallée, R., Lyons, B., Kyei-Poku, G., Sweeney, J. et deGroot, P., SCF, communications personnelles

Author

Pierre DesRochers

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